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This paper demonstrates a low-cost and portable multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based optical transducer. The system’s portability is achieved through the development of compact web-cam based spectrometer, and edge coupling to the SPR chip. Here, two configurations are presented: single-channel integrated system and two-channel system where the SPR chip and the spectrometer are coupled by a pair of plastic optical fibers. For the two-channel configuration, two different approaches are utilized to extract the optical spectrum: manual region cropping and automatic regions detection. For both approaches, image distortion and the size of the fiber tip affect the measured spectrum. For all configurations, mechanical alignment and mounting are made by 3D printing. The developed systems are tested with water and glycerol solution of different concentrations. The measured sensitivity is in the order of 10-4 RIU (refractive index unit) for all systems under the ambient condition.
PDF全文 (下载：4) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.289
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With the progress of the laser manufacturing technology, trace gas sensors based on tunable interband cascade lasers (ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have been widely used to detect organic compounds with high sensitivity. Compared with overtone and combination bands in the near infrared region, for many species, the intensities of fundamental rotational-vibrational absorption bands in the mid-infrared region are much stronger. In this paper, we demonstrate an ethanol sensor using a room-temperature continuous-wave (CW) tunable ICL laser as a light source to detect ethanol vapor concentration with high sensitivity. Combined with the first harmonic (1f) normalized second harmonic (2f) wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technology, the characteristics of the harmonics of the system are analyzed, and the amplitude of the first harmonic decrease with an increased concentration of ethanol has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. As a result, a detection limitation of 28 ppb is achieved.
PDF全文 (下载：6) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.303
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For wavelength interrogation based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors, refractive index (RI) resolution is an important parameter to evaluate the performance of the system. In this paper, we explore the influence of spectral power distribution on the refractive index (RI) resolution of the SPR system by simulating the reflectivity curve corresponding to different incident angles of the classical Kretschmann structure and several different spectral power distribution curves. A wavelength interrogation based SPR system is built, and commercial micro-spectrometers (USB2000 and USB4000) are used as the detection components, respectively. The RI resolutions of the SPR system in these two cases are measured, respectively. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the spectral power distribution has a significant effect on the RI resolution of the SPR system.
PDF全文 (下载：7) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.310
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Raman spectrum, as a kind of scattering spectrum, has been widely used in many fields because it can characterize the special properties of materials. However, Raman signal is so weak that the noise distorts the real signals seriously. Polynomial fitting has been proved to be the most convenient and simplest method for baseline correction. It is hard to choose the order of polynomial because it may be so high that Runge phenomenon appears or so low that inaccuracy fitting happens. This paper proposes an improved approach for baseline correction, namely the piecewise polynomial fitting (PPF). The spectral data are segmented, and then the proper orders are fitted, respectively. The iterative optimization method is used to eliminate discontinuities between piecewise points. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach improves the fitting accuracy.
PDF全文 (下载：0) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.332
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Optical fiber pre-warning system (OFPS) is often used to monitor the occurrence of disasters such as the leakage of oil and natural gas pipeline. It analyzes the collected vibration signals to judge whether there is any harmful intrusion (HI) events. At present, the research in this field is mainly focused on the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) methods and derivative algorithms to detect intrusion signals. However, the performance of CFAR is often limited to the actual collected signals distribution. It is found that the background noise usually obeys non-independent and identically distribution (Non-IID) through the statistical analysis of acquisition signals. In view of the actual signal distribution characteristics, this paper presents a CFAR detection method based on the normalization processing for background noise. A high-pass filter is designed for the actual Non-IID background noise data to obtain the characterization characteristic. Then, the background noise is converted to independent and identically distribution (IID) by using the data characteristic. Next, the collected data after normalization is processed with efficient cell average constant false alarm rate (CA-CFAR) method for detection. Finally, the results of experiments both show that the intrusion signals can be effectively detected, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified.
PDF全文 (下载：2) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.341
摘要 + ：(浏览：201次) | 请注意：下载全文可能需要登录或支付相关费用
Abstract: A π phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating theoretical model is established, and the effects of an asymmetric and symmetrical perturbation field on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating are investigated in this paper. The trends of wavelength shifting caused by effective refraction index of phase shift grating in symmetric and asymmetric acoustic field are investigated in detail. Then, the fiber laser acoustic sensors packaged in asymmetric and symmetrical structures are designed and tested, respectively. The results show that the acoustic response of the wavelength of the distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser (FL) in an asymmetric packaging structure is much more sensitive than in that in the symmetrical structure. The sensor packaged in the asymmetrical structure has a better low frequency (0 Hz-500 Hz) performance and a higher sensitivity than that in the symmetrical structure, and the sensitivity is improved about 15 dB in average and 32.7 dB in maximum. It provides a new method to improve the sensitivity of the fiber acoustic sensor.
PDF全文 (下载：3) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.351
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A simple and effective wavelength calibration scheme is proposed in a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) system for trace gas detection. A reference gas cell is connected an InGaAs photodetector for detecting the absorption intensity peak caused by the gas to calibrate the gas absorption center using distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with sawtooth wave driver current. The gas absorption wavelength calibration and gas sensing operations are conducted at a special internal to eliminate the wavelength shift of DFB-LD caused by the ambient fluctuations. Compared with the conventional wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), this method uses a lower lock-in amplifier bandwidth and averaging algorithm to improve signal noise ratio (SNR). Water vapor is chosen as a sample gas to evaluate its performance. In the experiments, the impact of sawtooth wave frequency and lock-in amplifier bandwidth on the harmonic signal is analyzed, and the wavelength-calibration technique-based system achieves a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 790 ppbv and SNR with 13.4 improvement factor compared with the conventional WMS system.
PDF全文 (下载：1) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.358
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A refractive index sensor based on Fano resonances in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled with rectangular and dual side rings resonators is proposed. The sensing properties are numerically simulated by the finite element method (FEM). For the interaction of the narrow-band spectral response and the broadband spectral response caused by the side-coupled resonators and the rectangular resonator, respectively, the transmission spectra exhibit a sharp and asymmetric profile. Results are analyzed using the coupled-mode theory based on the transmission line theory. The coupled mode theory is employed to explain the Fano resonance effect. The results show that with an increase in the refractive index of the fill dielectric material in the slot of the system, the Fano resonance peak exhibits a remarkable red shift. Through the optimization of structural parameters, we achieve a theoretical value of the refractive index sensitivity (S) as high as 1160 nm/RIU, and the corresponding sensing resolution is 8.62 × 10-5 RIU. In addition, the coupled MIM waveguide structure can be easily extended to other similar compact structures to realize the sensing task and integrated with other photonic devices at the chip scale. This work paves the way toward the sensitive nanometer scale refractive index sensor for design and application.
PDF全文 (下载：4) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.367
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The subgrade soil scaling factor (SSSF) shows the basic properties of soil such as stiffness, gravimetry, density, and particle distribution, which are essential for disaster prediction and geotechnical engineering activities. In this paper, methods used for soil properties analysis are firstly summarized, and then a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology is introduced. In order to acquire the properties and mechanical characteristics of soil accurately, a vibration-based method is presented, and an experiment for judging the properties of soil is conducted. As for the experiment, an FBG sensor is adhered to the upside of the vibration rod to measure its fundamental frequency. The rod vibrates freely at different-depth level of soil, and the changed data of wavelength from the FBG sensor are carefully collected. The Winkler spring model is used to analyze the relationship between the fundamental frequency and stiffness of soil. The results of this experiment suggest that data collected from FBG sensor can reflect vibration situation clearly and quantitatively. Thus the SSSF value can be calculated from the frequency-stiffness equation. The experimental results are almost identical with the theoretical derivation results. This confirms that the method presented in the paper can determine the SSSF effectively.
PDF全文 (下载：1) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.375
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During last decades, sensor elements based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) have been widely studied and developed due to the advantages of immunity to electromagnetic interference, compact size, high precision, and so on. The FBG itself is sensitive to axial strain and temperature variation directly and can indirectly measure these complex physical parameters, such as pressure, displacement, and vibration, by using some specially designed elastic structures to convert them into the axial strain of the FBG. Whether the FBG is fixed on the measured object to measure the strain directly or fixed on an elastic structure body to measure other physical quantities, these types of FBGs could be collectively called as strain sensing FBGs. The packaging of the FBG has important influence on FBG characteristics that directly affect the measurement accuracy, such as strain transfer, temperature characteristic, and spectral shape. This paper summarizes the packaging methods and corresponding temperature compensation methods of the currently reported strain sensing FBGs, focusing especially on fully pasted FBG, pre-stretched FBG with double-end fixed, and metallic packaging. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks of different packaging methods have been analyzed, which can provide a reference for future researches.
PDF全文 (下载：1) Photonic Sensors, 2018年第8卷第4期 pp.320